Tajweed Advanced Course (Part 2) The meeting of two letters Part 2 (alike-Similar-Approximates-Far) (الحرفان الملتقيان الجزء الثانى (المتماثلان – المتجانسان- المتقاربان-المتباعدان
1-The two alike (The Two Like Each Other) ِAl-Mutamathilan المتماثلان
Definition: They are the two letters that are the same in the characteristics(sifat) and in the articulation point (makhraj).
This means they are the exact same letters next to each other. Examples of this are:
( حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ (ث – ث) —- اذْهَب بِّكِتَابِي (ب – ب
Notes: When two waaw or two yaa next to each other in writing but one of the two letters are madd letter such as: آمنوا وعملوا Or الذي يوسوس
So we then have a natural lengthening, the next letter following this letter madd with a vowel on it ,madd letters not merging into non-madd letters of the same type.
2-The two Similar (The Two Of Similar Nature) Al-Mutajanisan المتجانسان
Definition: They are the two letters that have the same articulation point, but differ in some characteristics. They can be
In one word as in: ( أَمْوَالُكُمْ ( م – و both letters from lips.
3-The two Close (The Two Approximates to Each Other) Al-Mutaqariban المتقاربان
Definition: It is the two letters which are close in the articulation point and the characteristics or close in the articulation point but not in the characteristics or close in characteristics but not in the articulation point .
From this definition it is clear that there are three different ways that two letters can be classified as two close .
-There is a difference in opinion in the meaning of the two letters involved , the most important opinions are :
A-That there is no separation between the articulation parts of the two letters .instead they should use the same articulating part (i.e. the tongue); or if they use two different articulation parts ,there is no separation between the two parts (as in the lips and the tip of the tongue).
B- The approximation of the two letters is a relative approximation ,whether they use the same articulation part or not .This opinion is used most when the two letters have closeness in characteristics ,but not articulation points.
- An example of close in articulation and characteristics is the “laam” and “raa” in (قالَ رَب) These two letters have different articulation points but they are quite close to each other and they share all characteristics except the “Tikrar” )repetition ( it is just in raa .
- Another example : taa and thaa in ( وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ ) they have different articulation points but close to each other and share most characteristics except (taa) has shiddah and (thaa) has rakhawa.
- An example for letters close in articulation but not in characteristics . ( عَدَد ِسنٌين ) seen and daal the are.
- An example of letters close in characteristics ,they share all characteristics but are not close in the articulation points are the daal and jeem in the words (داود جالوت )
4-The Two Far (The Two Far From Each Other) ِAL-Mutaba’idan المتباعدان
Such as :
Each one of the Four relationships between two meeting letters divided into three divisions according to the vowels on each of the two letters.
The meeting of two letters —->>>>