The Sifaat of the letters (صــفــات الحـــروف)
Sifaat refers to the characteristic(s) of the letter
Definition :the way in which a letter is articulated that differentiates it from others. The purpose of these characteristics is to distinguish the letters that share the same articulation points (makhaarij).
But why do we need Sifaat when we already know the origin of the letter (makhraj)?
Note: Makhaarij only provides information as to where the sound of the letter comes from, whereas sifaat provides extra information with regards to the characteristics of the letter in order to produce the correct sound.
This section will further explain this :
Sifaat Al Huroof(The Letters) is of two types:
1-The Permanent Sifaat ( Qualities ) with Opposites الصفات اللازمة المتضادة
2-The Permanent Sifaat ( Qualities ) without Opposites الصفات اللازمة الغير متضادة
First:-The Permanent Sifaat ( Qualities ) with Opposites الصفات اللازمة المتضادة
1-Aljahr الجهر <–Opposites—> Alhams الهمس
2-Ashiddah الشدة <–At-Tawassu التوسط —> Arakhawa الرخاوة
3-Isti’laa الاستعلاء<–Opposites—> Istifaa الاستفال
4-Infitaa الانفتاح <–Opposites—> Itbaaq الاطباق
5-Idhlaq الازلاق<–Opposites—> Ismat الاصمات
1- Alhams الهمس
- Definition: weak or slight continuation of breath (whispering, expulsion of air) upon pronunciation of the letter when it carries a SUKOON.
- The quality of hams is found in the following 10 letters which are called Mahmuusah.
- The following letters have this quality: ( فحثه شخص سكت)
Note: The whispering is also present when the letter has a harakaat (other than sukoon), but it is not as strong (it is more of a natural hems whereas when it carries a sukoon you have to emphasize the hems more) .
Practice example of Hams:
Aljahr (Opposite of Hams) الجهر
- Definition: the stoppage of breath upon pronunciation of a letter when it carries a SUKOON.
- This is achieved by stopping the air flow at the makhraj of the letter.
- The quality of jahr are found in the remaining letters which are called majhuurah.
Practice example of Jahr:
2- Arakhawa الرخاوة
- Definition: the continuation of sound upon pronunciation of the letter when it carries a SAKOON, in a
soft and gentle manner.
- rakhaawa is the continuation of SOUND whereas hems is the continuation of BREATH.
- Tawassut have this letters of shiddah and All letters other than the quality.
At-Tawassut (in-between Rakhaawa and Shiddah) التوسط
- Definition: this is moderation between the previous two. The sound of the letter is not cut off nor allowed to continue.
- The quality of tawassut is found in the following 5 letters which are called mutawassitah.
- This quality is found in the following letters: (لن عمر )
Shiddah ( Opposite of Rakhawa) الشدة
- Definition: strong stoppage of the sound upon pronunciation of the letter when it carries a SAKOON.
- This is achieved by relying strongly on the makhraj or by constricting it.
- The following letters on its makhraj (أجد قط بكت ).
- the quality of shiddah is to pronounce forcefully, that when pronounced, the sound of the letter will be HARD, and the sound of the letter will end off in the makhraj.
–it will be continue