– QUALITIES OF LETTERS OR SIFAAT AL HUROOF PART -3   صفات الحروف الجزء الثالث

Without Opposites Permanent Qualities الصفات اللازمة غير المتضادة

1- As-Safeer (whistling sound)   الصفير

  • Definition: It is a sound similar to that of a bird, bee which can be described as either a buzzing or whistling sound .
  • The letter always has this sound no matter what harakaat, though the Safeer becomes stronger when it carries a SAKOON.
  • The quality of Ssafeer is found in the following 3 letters which are called Safeerah ( س ص ز)

Practice exercise of Safeer



2-Qalqalah (bouncing / echoing sound)

  • Definition: to pronounce with an echoing or bouncing sound when the letter carries a SUKOON only.
  • A characteristic of this sifa is the quick movement of the tongue or lips upon articulation.
  • The quality of qalqalah is found in the five following letters when they carry a sukoon and are called muqalqalah .     قطب جد ) ق ط ب ج  د )
  • This letter can either be in the middle or end of a word (as a result of a stop).
  • Since an additional sound is being made, care must be taken that the saakin letter should not sound doubled (mushaddad) or vowelled (mutaharrik).  لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
  • The qalqalah is necessary for these letters because they have the attributes of jahr (stoppage of the flow of breath) and shiddah (stoppage of the flow of sound), so without qalqalah, there would be no sound!

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There are 2 types :

a. Sughrah (minor).

b. Kubrah (major)

Sughrah (minor)

The qalqalah letter will appear either in the middle or end of a word, but the reader will continue the recitation and will not stop on it.  هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ

Kubrah (major)

If the qalaqalah letter appears at the end of a word and the reader stops on it (for whatever reason), the qalqalah sound is at its clearest / strongest   مَا أَعْبُدُ

Practrice Exercise of Qalqalah



3-Leen (dipthong / easiness)

  • Definition: A manner of articulation that seeks an easy pronunciation.
  • The quality of leen is found in the following 2 letters when they carry a sakoon and the letter before it carries a fathah. They are called layyinah.
  • The following letters have this quality:
    – Waw sakinah ( و ) with a fatha on the letter before it
    – Yaa sakinah ( ى ) with a fathah on the letter before it.

The pronunciation has to be for the duration of 2 counts

Practrice Exercise of Leen

Leen EXample


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