PARTS OF SPEECH (أقسام الكلام)
We start the Arabic lessons from the very beginning. A meaningful word in Arabic is called Kalimah (كـــلمــــة ). It has only three parts. In other words there are only three parts of speech in Arabic. These are:
- Noun ( أٍســــم )
- Verb ( فـــعـــل )
- Harf (حـــرف)
Noun ( أٍســــم ): literally :name.
Like :‘Muhammad’ (محمد) – Ahmad ( أحمد ) – France ( فرنسا ) – boy (ولد) – Maryam ( مريم )
It is that word which does not need the help of another word to explain its meaning. It is the name of a person, a place or a thing, and the term Ism includes the adjective nouns ( الصفة ) as well.
Verb ( فـــعـــل ):
It is that word by which we understand some work or action being done. It is of three kinds/tenses:
- The perfect tense, the Madi (الماضى) is used for an action which is completed,(فعل) he did (كتب) he wrote (دخل) he entered’.
- The imperfect tenses the Madari (المضارع) used when an action is not completed ( يفعل ) he does or he is doing or he will do ( يكتب ) he writes/is writing/ will write( يدخل ) he enters/is entering/will enter’.
- The imperative tense or the Amr ( الامر ) which
signifies command, request or supplication( أفعل )
( أكتب ) ‘write ( أدخل ) ‘enter’.
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The particle, preposition and conjunction are called harf. It is that word which is used with noun or verb to complete the meaning of the sentence; its meaning will depend on the word with which it is used, على ‘on’,
فى ‘in’, ان ‘regarding’,نعم ‘yes’ لا ‘no’ ‘ما that/ what’, etc.
Further explanation and information about the Ism, the Fail and the Harf will follow in the subsequent lessons.